She is the Director of UCL’s Religion and Political Theory Centre. Religion-making involved singling out certain social activities and cultural practices as “religious” and de-politicizing them (see Hinduism in India). These (and others) are all legitimate uses of the concept of religion. Talal Asad and Saba Mahmood have shown, for instance, that liberal secularism requires individual belief—not communal observance, rituals or embodied piety—to be taken as the essence of religiosity. the study of religion which includes four follo wing approaches: doctrinal analysis, social. It has been argued that religious studies is a polymethodic discipline, and that the student of religion should be familiar with the approaches of the major disciplines concerned with understanding the nature of religion, not least because the approach adopted has profound influence on the phenomena chose for investigation and the conclusions … Some religions do not have a deity; others are community-based rather than belief-based; and the boundary between them and secular ideologies such as nationalism is porous. The Inside Perspective versus the Outside Perspective; 4. To ask that the law embrace and describe the whole of social reality would be to yearn for a totalitarian law. If religion is a western concept that has been used to shore up the authority of the colonial and sovereign state, through shifting, arbitrary demarcations between “religion” tradition, culture, reason, and the nation, then scholars should be wary of treating it as a stable, coherent object of academic study. Hence the proposed shift from an analogizing to a disaggregating strategy. First, different disciplines will have different answers to the question of what the concept of religion is for; and as a result they will work with different conceptions of religion. Format: PDF, ePub, Docs Category : Religion Languages : en Pages : 497 View: 7627. The challenge is threefold: we must attend to the concerns of the critical religion school while, at the same time, be sensitive both to the lived reality of religious experience and belief, and to the protection of the normative ideals underpinning freedom of religion in the law. Intellectual historians and students of political thought study religious traditions as coherent, inter-generational, scholarly bodies of thought—the “Islamic” or the “Christian” or the “Confucian” tradition, for example. Nor does the origin of a concept in itself discredit its uses: the concept may well have been forged in the crucible of missionary and colonial encounters, but its meanings and uses have further proliferated in non-colonial and post-colonial settings, in ways that escaped, distorted, and subverted the original discourse. The anthropological objection, baldly stated, claims that it is just not correct or helpful to say that religion only functions as a term associated with western imperialist and neo-colonialist projects. Is religion a valid category of scholarly inquiry? From this perspective, it would be a mistake to think that conceptual imprecision is in itself an obstacle to scholarly inquiry. The disaggregated approach does not claim that it captures the fullness of the lived, anthropological reality of religion. Religion should be disaggregated into a number of different values which relate to the law of the liberal state in different ways. In the development of the study of religion as a new discipline in the twentieth century, the pioneers of the field were often at pains to stress that what they did was different from theology. Much of the interesting work done in anthropology, sociology, and religious studies departments, for example, draws on both the first and the second approach). Religious studies, also known as the study of religion, is an academic field devoted to research into religious beliefs, behaviors, and institutions.It describes, compares, interprets, and explains religion, emphasizing systematic, historically based, and cross-cultural perspectives. African Agency and a Biden Administration: Lessons from Trump’s Presidency, Covid-19: A Closer Look at Emerging Trends in Africa, a complex continuum of resemblances and differences, Nature and normativity: New inquiries into the natural world, Scales of justice for environmental ethics: A reply to Hennessy and Hoesterey, Provincializing the environmental humanities: An Islamic view, Ethical response and the environmental humanities. PDF | The issue of methodological approach in the study of religion has remained an enigma to many scholars of science of religion... | Find, read and cite all … The Immanent Frame publishes interdisciplinary perspectives on religion, secularism, and the public sphere. As such, it might be asked in what way a theological Approaches to the Study of Religion book. Which politics of nature? Phone: 212-377-2700 • Fax: 212-377-2727. Revisited: Why do evangelicals vote for Trump? The normative objection is slightly different. METHODOLOGY Different approaches to the study of religion Introduction to Methodology There are many different ways of studying religion. For “egalitarian theorists of religious freedom” (as I call them), there is nothing special about religion as such. The first is that religion is (as Daniel Dubuisson once wrote) “the West’s most characteristic concept, around which it has established and developed its identity.” There is a deep and significant continuity between the Christian defense of the “true religion” and the nineteenth-century invention of “world religions.” The universalism of the concept masked an internally hierarchical classificatory scheme, which, as Tomoko Mazuzawa has shown, was crafted within the crucible of the missionary and colonial encounter. Your email address will not be published. Let me get back to the starting point of our inquiry: Is religion a valid category of scholarly research? The second ground for skepticism is that religion has served to define the western idea of the secular, and remains deeply entangled with it. They suggest that, even though historically the liberal state may have defined itself in relation to a problematic construal of religion, it has since broadened the scope of its moral concern, and is therefore less vulnerable to charges of ethnocentrism. The study of religion, also known as religious studies is an academic field of knowledge that focus on research of religion in its theoretical (philosophical background of the doctrine and ethics) and practical (cult, religion behaviors, etc.) 300 Cadman Plaza West • 15th Floor • Brooklyn, NY 11201 • USA Social Science Research Council Classical Approaches To The Study Of Religion Classical Approaches To The Study Of Religion by Jacques Waardenburg, Classical Approaches To The Study Of Religion Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. She has published extensively in the areas of republicanism and toleration, theories of law and the state, and global justice. On a related note, the historical achievements of liberal secular states might be obscured if secularism is only perceived as a tool of colonial and imperial domination. Psychology of Religion; 8. Third, the secular separation between a privatized, individualized sphere of religion and a public, social, rational sphere of politics has obscured the way in which the state, the nation, and the law operate as the modern sacred. discursive study of religion, historical discourse analysis, social constructivism, defijinitions of reli-gion, sociology of knowledge Although established as an independent discipline at European universities more than one hundred years ago, the academic study of religion is still wres-tling with severe problems of identity and legitimization. They all provide important insights into religious studies. Egalitarian theorists of religious freedom, from this perspective, are right to seek to identify the normative grounds on which certain beliefs and practices call for state protection (or state restraint, in the case of non-establishment). Methodological Approaches to the Study of Religion; 2.1 Theological Approach; 2.2 Philosophical Approach; 2.3 Religious Approaches; 3. View Approaches to Studying Religion Milestone 1.pdf from PHL MISC at University of Phoenix. As de Vries puts it: `The nineteenth-century scholars made abundant use of the new materials. Anthropologists, for example, legitimately study a key dimension of human experience—the religious experience—in its diversity and unruliness. Definitions, approaches and methodologies in the study of religions Santanu K. Patro Introduction In the recent past the study of religions has been established as an indepen­ dent discipline, thanks to the development of the scientific approach. Kujenga Amani facilitates the exchange of ideas about diverse aspects of peacebuilding in Africa. Second, however, we may ask whether the normative analogy used by egalitarian theorists of religious freedom is the right one. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Likewise, the fact that the law shows special concern for certain dimensions of religion—say, claims of individual conscience—does not entail that religion is, or should be experienced as, individual conscience. We pick out, from the complex notion of “religion” that we have inherited, distinct elements and values that democratic law has good reason to protect. The first European missionaries had thought that the native peoples of the Americas or Africa had no religion—only “cultures” or “superstitions.” Once colonized, it was discovered that they did have religion after all. It fosters innovative research, nurtures new generations of social scientists, deepens how inquiry is practiced within and across disciplines, and mobilizes necessary knowledge on important public issues. 1. Sullivan demonstrates that religion is too complex, too comprehensive, and too multi-faceted to be adequately captured by the law of the liberal state. By “criticizing religion,” I mean not the critique of the beliefs or practices of self-described religious individuals or groups but rather the critique of the concept of religion as a scholarly category. Whereas it might, at first, appear that the Americas is an overwhelming Christian bloc, the reality is not that simple. Approaches to the Black Atlantic: A preliminary analysis of various strategies for the study of Black Atlantic religion from an Americas perspective Ken Chitwood | University of Florida | October 2014 Religion in the Americas is not always as it seems. approach to the study of religion in a coherent way, Gerardus van der Leeuw’s Phänomenologie der Religion (1933).”13 Another scholar who sees Hegel’s infl uence on the phenomenol-ogy of religion is Olof Pettersson who argues that, contrary to seeing van der Leeuw as the originator on the strength of the above named work of this approach: According to a number of scholars (often influenced by Foucauldian or post-colonial thought), the category of religion is deeply implicated in the history and practice of western statism and imperialism. It may well be that egalitarian theorists have picked a normatively problematic, or normatively narrow, analogy for religion. Second, secular modernity is itself rooted in a distinctive Protestant anthropology, the ethos of which neatly maps onto a modern liberal subjectivity that encourages the individual to cultivate the autonomy and discipline required to relate to her beliefs and ends in the right way. Thus in principle it is the study of all religions from a viewpoint not isolated within any one of them. Secularism and freedom of religion, in liberal thought, are connected to moral values such as individual autonomy, moral self-determination, freedom of conscience as well as more political ideals such as non-theocratic constitutional democracy, separation of church and state, and non-establishment of the dominant religion. A response to Crockford. Approaches in Psychology - Psychologist World Area Study Approach. Disinformation and Democracy: The Colombian Experience, Artificial Intelligence and the Cultural Problem of Online Extreme Speech, Disaster Studies as Politics with Other Means: Covid-19 and the Legacies of Cold War Disaster Research. I do not think it is, although I cannot make the full case here. For critics, this is visible in three different ways. This week, we are pleased to bring you a double re-post in response to our double podcast with John Wolffe & Ronald Hutton on Historical Approaches to the Study of Religion. Critics have pointed out that—by analogizing religion with individual conscience or conceptions of the good—liberalism reveals its Protestant, individualistic bias, and is unable to capture the fullness of the religious experience. expression, subjective experi ence and scientific (objec tive) research [1, p. 11]. Although I cannot make the full case here, I sketch a preliminary defense of the third approach, in the context of recent debates in political theory. Theologians adopt a more content-based approach: they study the texts and dogma which capture our fundamental dependence on a greater order of things. The law does not describe and regulate the full experience of marriage: the fact that, in law, marriage is a contract does not mean that marriage is, or should be experienced as, a contract. Not surprisingly perhaps, the work of those scholars who have most influenced the “critical religion” school, such as Asad and Mahmood, explicitly aims to provide a thick anthropological description of the complexity and diversity of religious experience—it brings out, for example, the distinctive modes of Muslim religious subjectivity. Like most abstract concepts, the concept of religion is a construction projected onto the world, but one consequence of this large-scale projection may well be that our world has genuinely come to exhibit it. Cécile Laborde is Professor of Political Theory at University College London. Your email address will not be published. Download Classical Approaches To The Study … We can say that there are different approaches that can be taken when studying religion. (PDF) Approaches to the study of globalization This article throws light on the four important approaches to the study of organisational behavior, i.e, (1) Human Resource Approach, (2) Contingency Approach, (3) Productivity Approach, and (4) System Approach. So the starting point of the disaggregation strategy is to accept that, as religion is indeed not a “thing” but a term of art (it has different meanings in different contexts), different dimensions of it will be appropriated in different ways in different disciplines. Author: Jacques Waardenburg Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG ISBN: 3110473593 Size: 70.29 MB Format: PDF, Docs View: 713 Get Books. So neutrality, for liberals such as Rawls and Ronald Dworkin, is “generalized non-establishment.” Egalitarian theorists of religious freedom offer a compelling response to the “critical religion” school. As it happens, one group of influential political philosophers has tried to do just that. It is Jacques Waardenburg’s merit to have assembled in Classical Approaches to the Study of Religion well-chosen excerpts from the works of forty-one scholars, from Johann Jakob Bachofen (1815-1887) to Joachim Wach (1898-1955), who sought to explain this most peculiar of human creations. The implications of the first approach have been resisted in many quarters. Approach. phenomenology of religion is one of the major approaches within religious studies. There are two main reasons for this suspicion. 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